Chemistry

SYLLABUS FOR JEE-2012 CHEMISTRY

General topics

Concept  of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical  formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole  concept) involving common oxidationreduction, neutralisation, and  displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction,  molarity, molality and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states

Absolute  scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van  der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square  and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of  partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding

Bohr  model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle  duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative  quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d  orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number  36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule;  Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d  orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;  Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative  aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular,  triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal  bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics

First  law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume  work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization;  Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of  spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium

Law  of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect  of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo  in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and  buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts);  Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry

Electrochemical  cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst  equation and its relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic  cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance,  specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law;  Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics

Rates  of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order  reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state

Classification  of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a,  b, c, {, ®, ©), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in  fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic  compounds, point defects.

Solutions

Raoult’s  law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure,  elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Surface Chemistry

Elementary  concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids:  types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas  of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).

Nuclear Chemistry

Radioactivity:  isotopes and isobars; Properties of ®, © and rays; Kinetics of  radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of  nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission  and fusion reactions.

 

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals

Boron,  silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties  of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and  sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds

Oxides,  peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and  sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane,  boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums;  Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones,  silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;  Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and  phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen  sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium  thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of  chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.

Transition elements (3D series)

Definition,  general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour  (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of  spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of  mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms,  hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds  (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).

Preparation and properties of the following compounds

Oxides  and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+,  Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver  oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.

Ores and minerals

Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.

Extractive metallurgy

Chemical  principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded); Carbon  reduction method (iron and tin); Self reduction method (copper and  lead); Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium); Cyanide  process (silver and gold).

Principles of qualitative analysis

Groups  I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+,  Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate  and sulphide.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Concepts

Hybridisation  of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules;  Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds  containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature  excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only  hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds);  Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and  hyperconjugation; Keto-enol tautomerism; Determination of empirical and  molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method);  Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of  alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on  acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive  effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during  homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and  stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes

Homologous  series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points  and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of  alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes

Physical  properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole  moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and  alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination);  Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and  alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions;  Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O  (X=halogen); Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.

Reactions of benzene

Structure  and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation,  nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect  of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.

Phenols

Acidity,  electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and  sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.

Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above)

Alkyl  halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard  reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions; Alcohols:  esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium,  phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into  aldehydes and ketones; Ethers:Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis;  Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone  formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction;  haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard  addition); Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and  amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and  aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with  nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic  amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamines  reaction; Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes  and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine  substitution).

Carbohydrates

Classification;  mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation, reduction,  glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

Amino acids and peptides

General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.

Properties and uses of some important polymers

Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.

Practical organic chemistry

Detection  of elements (N, S, halogens); Detection and identification of the  following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl  (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of  separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.